Cladogram Worksheet Sponge Jellyfish Flatworm Answers

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Description: How to Make a Cladogram (Adapted from ENSI/SENSI Lesson Plan: Making Cladograms http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/home.html) Cladograms are diagrams that show …

Cladogram Worksheet Sponge Jellyfish Flatworm Answers

Cladogram Worksheet Sponge Jellyfish Flatworm Answers

How to make a cladogram (Adapted from ENSI/SENSI lesson plan: Making cladograms “. By showing these relationships, cladograms reconstruct the evolutionary history (phylogeny) of taxa. Cladograms can also be called “phylogenies” or “trees”. A cladogram is created by grouping organisms based on their common characteristics Example: 1. Given these characters and taxa: TaxaCharacters Shark Bullfrog Kangaroo Human bones X X X XTwo pairs X X XLimbs Mammary glands X XGlands Placenta X2. Draw a Venn diagram Start with the common characteristics of all surface taxa Write in each cell those taxa that contain only these sets of characters Placenta: Human Mammary Gland: Bitoed Kangaroo: Bullfrog BHBuVertebrae: Shark3 Convert the Venn diagram to a cladogram like this: Shark Bullfrog Kangaroo Human Placenta Mammary Glands Two Limbs Vertebrae Name:____________ Period:______ Date__________ Cladogram Worksheet Convert the following data table to a Venn diagram and then to a cladogram: characteristics of spongy jelly Snail Snail Snail Human X X X XX X XX XX X XXWith flagella X X XX X (X) X X X XX X XXSymmetry XX X XX Bilateral X X X Xsymmetry X XMesoderm First developed head First developed body Anus First developed body Segmented shell, dorsal and colon vascular system : dorsal and limb vessels: -October Your Class Plan 2003 Unit: Phylogeny Topic: Cladistics: Systematic Phylogeny Objective 1. Students will learn the difference between traditional classification and cladistic classification and why modern biologists work with cladistic classification. 2. Students will learn what monophyletic, paraphyletic, and polyphyletic taxa are and why clades can only be monophyletic. 3. Students will learn how cladograms represent evolutionary hypotheses and predict evolutionary events. (ie the scientific method) 4. Students will learn how cladograms show relationships between taxa and represent the “family tree” of life. 5. They learn to make a cladogram from morphological data, to group the cladogram by activity, to leave the work in progress as homework. .Fossils: Cladogram Practice A cladogram is a diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships between taxa. They are made up of a series of letters; that is, a measurable characteristic of living things. In the simple example below, four traits are measured for four taxa (actually a “matrix of a matrix” is more complete). Characteristics Shark Bull Frog Kangaroo Human Vertebra X X X X X X X Two Pairs of Limbs Mammary Glands X X Glands Placenta X Note that these characteristics define groups of taxa, for example: Placenta: Human Body Glands: Two-toed Kangaroo: Bull Frog Vertebra: Shark … Show More

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The reason for the nature of niches is that evolution works by changing existing species. Therefore, two recently diverged species are very similar (for example, humans and chimpanzees shared a common ancestor about 10 million years ago). On the other hand, there are many differences between two long-separated species (for example, humans and chickens shared a common ancestor about 300 million years ago). A cladogram can then be constructed from the matrix and alternatively distinguishing features labelled: Shark Bullfrog Kangaroo Human placenta Mammary glands Two limbs Vertebrae … Show more

First convert it to a Venn diagram like above. Then draw a cladogram showing the evolutionary relationships between these taxa.

Fungal characters Jellyfish Flatworm Earthworm Snail Fruit Starfish Human cell X X X X X X X X with flagellar symmetry X X X X X X X X X X X X X X (X) X symmetry Mesoderm X X X X X Head X X X forms first anus X X forms first segmented X X calcified body …

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