Community Ecology Worksheet Answers – 1 Population, Community, and Ecosystem Worksheet Title Part A: Introduction to Ecology Isle Royale’s wolves and moose are known worldwide and are the oldest study of a wild prey-prey system. Both species arrived on Isle Royale relatively recently. Moose reportedly swam onto the island in the early 1900s to establish a population, and wolves followed decades later onto the ice off Ontario, Canada in the late 1940s. Annual monitoring of wolves and moose began in 1958, when Durward Allen of Purdue University began an ambitious “ten-year” study of the wolf-moose relationship. This research continues today under the leadership of John Vucetich and Rolf Peterson of Michigan Technological University. Why is this relationship important to researchers? 2. After watching the video The Wolfs and Moose of Isle Royale, explain how it affected the population. Part B: Concept Analysis Use the word bank to match the definitions with the terms. (#1-8) ecosystem organism biome biosphere abiotic community population 1. a living part of the environment 2. a group of abiotic and biotic environmental factors 3. a single organism capable of reproducing/producing fertile offspring 4. Ecosystem climate and communities similar to them 5. At the same time individuals of the same species living in an area 6. Earth with all its ecosystems 7. Different and interacting populations living together in an area 8. Non-living parts of the environment 9. Sorting at the same level of organization. Order them 1-4, starting with the simplest ones. An ecosystem population of a community of organisms 10. Identify the level of organization. all. A swarm of bats that live in caves b. A tree frog with red eyes c. Insects, fish and algae in the lake d. sea 1
2 Part C: Habitat vs. Niche 1. Red foxes are predators that eat small mammals, amphibians, insects and fruits. Red foxes are active at night. They provide blood for blackflies and mosquitoes and are hosts for numerous diseases. The litter or carrion left behind by a fox’s meal provides food for many small scavengers and decomposers. all. Is this an example of a red fox’s habitat or niche? 2. Foxes are in meadow forest fringe communities. In other plant communities, other animal species may occupy niches similar to red foxes. For example, in the grassland communities of western Canada and the United States, coyotes occupy niches similar to red foxes. a. Describe what happens when two organisms try to occupy the same niche in the same habitat. 2. What is the difference between habitat and niche? ** Vocabulary Cards: Get 7 cards, one for each vocabulary. Use this example as a guide to help you create cards. ** Vocabulary organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, biomes, niches, habitats (vocabulary words) abiotic (definitions) non-living parts of the environment (examples) rocks (visual) Part D: Population density ( 1. Population density is calculated ) Population Land area (km 2 ) Density (km 2 ) Canada 32, 976, 140 China 1, 306, 313, 800 9, 596, 960 Japan 127, 417, ,835 India 1, 080, 273, 273, 92 Spain 40, 341 , ,782 UK 60, 441, ,820 US 295, 734, 100 9, 629, What is population density? 2
Community Ecology Worksheet Answers
3 Part E: Dispersal Models and Biological Potential 1. Identify the type of dispersal model. (bunch, uniform, random) a. A group of mushrooms growing on a rotting log. rain. Sage plants surround individual sage plants and secrete toxins, chemicals that kill surrounding plants. Seed. Dandelion seeds are blown by the wind, so they germinate wherever conditions are favorable. d. A herd of elephants gather around a pool of water. 2. Why do most organisms rarely reach their biological potential? Part F: Estimating Population Size Random Sampling — When studying a population, it is usually not possible to count all the members of the population. One way to estimate population size is to collect data from a random sample. This method works well for estimating plant populations over a large area. Procedure: 1. Take a sheet of paper numbered 1-10 and cut it into individual pieces. Put them in one container. 2. Take a sheet of paper from A-J and cut it into individual pieces. Put it in another container. 3. The grid below represents the study area. The land is about 10 meters on each side. Each grid segment is 1 m x 1 m. Each black dot represents a sunflower dot. Randomly remove one cap from each container. Store the number-letter combination in the data table. Find the grid segment corresponding to the combination and count the number of sunflower plants in that grid segment. 4. Record the number of sunflowers in the data table. Place the cap back into a suitable container. Repeat step 5 until you have data for 10 more grid segments. This is a sample. Trial grid coordinate marker numbers Number of sunflowers in grid segment 3
Species Interactions Worksheet With Key
4 Calculations: 1. Find the total number of sunflower plants in a sample of 10 segments. Total number of sunflower plants 2. Divide the total number by 10 to determine the average number of sunflower plants per square meter of the sample. Find out the average number of plants per square meter estimated for the population. Population Estimation 4. Count the practical number of all sunflower plants in the field. Actual population 5. Now find the percentage error in the estimate. The difference is always positive, so subtract the smaller of the two numbers from the larger. Actual quantities Estimated quantities = difference. China. Now divide the difference by the actual amount and multiply by 100. Difference/Actual Amount x 100 = % Error % Error Analysis: 1. What are the problems with this technique? What can affect accuracy? 2. A biologist collected a gallon of pond water and counted 50 parasites. Using the sampling technique, how many parasites are found in the pond if the pond is 20,000 gallons? Tagging and recapturing – Because it may be difficult or impossible to count every individual, tagging (marking) is a useful method of determining the size of an animal population. The first step is to capture a known number of individuals from the population. Individuals are marked or tagged and released back into the population. A random sample is taken from the population when the marked individual has time to assimilate back into the population. The number of tagged or tagged individuals is determined and recorded along with the total number of individuals sampled. Procedure: 1. You get a bag that represents your population. The bag is the environment and the white bean is the animal population. 2. 10 animals (white beans) are randomly drawn from the bag. Label these beans by simply replacing them with colored beans. Put the 10 white Papuas aside and put the 10 marked Papuas back in the bag (middle). 3. Grab the 15 beans without shaking the bag too much. This is another pitfall. Count the number of items shown and record it on the chart. Continue until you get stuck 10 times. Use the equation to calculate the estimated population size. 4. Repeat step 3 and perform 10 more times for the same population. Recalculate the population estimate. Total population estimate = (total counted) x (marked) (total marked) 4
5 Analysis: 1. Calculate the estimated population size after 10 trials using the given formula. Estimated size = (150 x 10) / total number of reentries at mark 2. Calculate the estimated population size after 20 trials using the given formula. Estimated size = (300 x 10) / total number of re-entries at marker 3. Now count the number of bins (bags) in the environment. True population size 4. Calculate the percentage error. Remember that this number is always positive. Difference/Actual Count x 100 = % Error % Error Capture Total Capture: Total: 300 Number Retaken to Grade 5. Was there a significant difference between trial 10 and trial 20? What does this say about the actual grade and number of retakes? 6. Given the following information, what is the estimated size of the butterfly population in Wilson Park? A biologist initially tagged 40 butterflies in Wilson Park. In one month, his butterfly received 200 butterflies. Of these 200, 80 were identified as tagged. Based on this information, what is the estimated butterfly population in Wilson Park? 7. Under what conditions does sampling work best?
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