Hemophilia Pedigree Royal Family Worksheet Answers – 1 Hemophilia – A Royal Disease Jelena Aronova-Tiuntseva and Clyde Freeman Herreid University of New York Hemophilia is an X-linked recessive disease characterized by the inability to properly form blood clots. Until recently, hemophilia was incurable, and few sufferers survived to reproductive age after multiple strokes. Today, hemophilia is treated with blood transfusions and anti-hemophilia factor injections. However, the treatment is very expensive and can sometimes cause problems due to patient allergic reactions or other transplant complications. Hemophilia occurs more often in women (1:100,000,000) than in men (1:10,000). This is because the important gene for blood clotting is located on the X chromosome. Males have only one X chromosome, so if this chromosome is defective, hemophilia appears immediately. There is a possibility of premature death. On the other hand, women have two X chromosomes. If only one is defective, the other normal X chromosome can compensate. Women have normal blood clotting. He carries a degenerate gene. If some of his children were hemophiliacs, this would be resolved. Typically, hemophiliac women have two defective X chromosomes, as this is rarely seen. Hemophilia played an important role in European history because it suddenly appeared in the children of the British Queen. The disease was known as the royal disease because it came from royal families in Europe and was passed down through the offspring. The Queen has always been concerned about the blood quality of the British royal family. In a letter to his daughter Vicky, who calls their home the Blood of Lymph, his feelings about the need for resuscitation are reflected: I wish we could find more black eyes for our children. I couldn’t help but think of what my dear father had said when the royal purebred had a few flaws and it didn’t matter that my head was constantly oozing with beautiful hair and blue eyes. You might think that a dear father must often have strong blood. At the time this letter was sent, it is doubtful that the Queen knew exactly what was wrong with her family’s blood. Hemophilia in his eighth child, Leopold. It first appears in the family of the Duke of Albany. Leopold suffered from heavy bleeding during his short life and was always described as a very sensitive person. A normal child’s life was impossible because he could die from any cut or bruise and had to be constantly monitored. Despite all the protection, Leopold died at the age of 30 from a minor fall. An angry and confused queen whose appearance is hemophilia in one of her sons. He could only protest that the disease did not originate in his family. In addition, Whispers spread the Curse of Coburg. The curse is believed to date back to the early 19th century, when the Prince of Coburg married a Hungarian princess named Antoinette de Kochary. The priest of the Kohari family is jealous of the wealth that the happy couple inherits from the bride’s father and curses the next generation of Coburgs with disease. Yes, hemophilia affecting children has nothing to do with the curse. The traditional view is that he or his father Augustus carried the mutation in the Duke of Kent’s sperm. It spread to the royal houses of Europe as kings married to strengthen political alliances. Spain with a look at the genealogy. The occurrence of hemophilia can be traced to Russia and Prussia. Page 1
2 Figure 1. Royal Houses of Europe Duke of Kent ( ) Duke of Saxe-Coburg ( ) Albert ( ) Queen of England ( ) Frederick VII Alexandra of England Alice Louise of Hesse Alfred Helena Louise Arthur Leopold Helen Beatrice Henry Wilhelm II of Greece Sophie George V of Russia Irene Henry Fred Alix Nicholas II, Athlon Alphonso XIII Eugenie Leopold Maurice George VI Voldemort Henry Sigmund Prussia Olga Tatiana Marie Anastasia Alexis Lady May Albel Smith Rupert Alfonso Gonzalo s Margaret Normale Elizabeth Philipe Normale Margaret Normale Elizabeth Philipe Normale Hee A boy may be hemophiliac JC Juan Carlos Page 2
Hemophilia Pedigree Royal Family Worksheet Answers
3 1. Let us first consider the family of the queen’s son Leopold (see Figure 2). His daughter Alice Athlone had a hemophiliac son (Rupert) and two other children, a son and a daughter, whose status is unknown. (a) What is the probability that the other son is hemophiliac (b) What is the probability that his daughter is a carrier of hemophilia (c) What is the probability that both children are normal? Leopold was his only child. His three other sons, Alfred and Arthur, suffered from hemophilia. The first son is free of hemophilia because he is from the seventh generation of the current royal family of England. Louise, the Queen’s fourth daughter and sixth child, was childless and her status as a carrier cannot be assessed. The first child, Vicky, and the fifth, Helena, had children, none of whom had dengue fever, indicating that the mothers were not carriers. Figure 2. The Leopold Family Lady May Rupert Albel Smith Leopold Alice of Athlone Helen 2. Now to the Spanish connection – youngest child, Beatrice, daughter. One normal boy and two hemophiliac boys (see Figure 3). A) Look at the family tree of the royal family. Determine which of Beatrice’s children received the hemophilia gene. (b) Note that Beatrice’s daughter Eugenie married King Alfonso XIII and had six children, one of whom was the father of the current King Juan Carlos. Juan Carlos is normal. Carrier or Hemophilia Figure 3. Family Beatrice Alfonso Alfonso XIII Beatrice Henri Eugenie Leopold Maurice Gonzalo 3. Queen Alice’s third child transmitted hemophilia to the Imperial families of Germany and Russia (see Figure 4, next page). Three of Alice’s six children suffered from hemophilia. His son Frederick suffered from a cut ear for three days at the age of three. Eventually, the blood flow stops. But a few months later, while playing in his mother’s room, the boy slipped through the open window and fell down the stairs. He died in the evening due to internal bleeding. Alice’s daughter Irene married her cousin Henry Prussia and had two sons with hemophilia. Waldemar, the youngest prince, dies at the age of four, despite all efforts to hide the terrible illness of the German imperial family. Another prince named Henry died at the age of 56. Alice, Alice’s second daughter, was also a plaintiff. If she had accepted Eddie’s or her brother George’s marriage proposal. Hemophilia goes back to the ruling branch of the British royal family. But Alexandra (Alix) married Tsar Nicholas II instead, causing illness for the Russian imperial family. Before the birth of Alexis, Olga, the heir to the Russian throne. Tatiana, Marie and Anastasia have four daughters. These children along with their parents were eventually killed during the Russian Revolution. A few months after his birth, his parents discovered that their precious and only child, Alexis, had hemophilia. The first symptom is unexpected bleeding that stops after a few days. For more information, JC Juan Carlos page 3
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4 But whenever the child touches the hand or foot, dark swellings appear. The worst is bleeding in the joints. In addition to pain, this means damage to organs. When the boy grew up, he spent several weeks in bed and when he woke up, he had to wear a heavy iron brace. It seems that many prayers of experienced doctors and grieving parents to God do not help the suffering child. His parents, the Tsar and Tsarina, are distraught over their son’s condition and turn to the spiritual Rasputin, who says he can help Alex. Rasputin is the only one who can ease his son’s suffering, so he deserves Alexandra’s unlimited trust. Not sure how he managed it. A possible explanation is Rasputin through hypnosis.
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