Lipids Structure And Function Worksheet Answer Key

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Lipids Structure And Function Worksheet Answer Key

Lipids Structure And Function Worksheet Answer Key

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Lipids Concept Map With Answer Key

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Lipids Structure And Function Worksheet Answer Key

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Membrane Lipids Phosphoglycerides And Spingholipids

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All sales on Digital Resources are final and non-refundable. Please read the description carefully and email any questions before purchasing. Living cells are surrounded by a cell membrane. Plant cells (Figure (PageIndex)) and animal cells (Figure (PageIndex)) also have a cell nucleus, which is surrounded by a membrane and carries the cell’s genetic information. Everything between the cell membrane and the nuclear membrane is called the cytoplasm and includes the intracellular fluid and various intracellular components such as mitochondria and ribosomes. Although all cell membranes have a very similar structure, membrane function varies greatly from organism to organism and even within a single organism, arising from the presence of different proteins and lipids.

Figure (PageIndex): (A) Idealized plant cell. Not all structures shown here occur in all types of plant cells. (B) Ideal animal cell. The structures shown here are rarely found in individual animal cells.

Lipids Structure And Function Worksheet Answer Key

Cell membrane lipids are highly polar but have a dual character. Some lipids are ionic and therefore soluble in water, while others have a hydrocarbon structure and insoluble substances dissolve at poles. The ionic part is often called hydrophilic, which means “water-loving,” and the nonpolar part is also called hydrophobic, which means “water-fearing” (repels water). Allowed to float freely in water, polar lipids spontaneously assemble into one of three configurations: micelles, monolayers, and bilayers (Figure (PageIndex)).

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Micelles have hydrocarbon lipid tails that point toward the center of the aggregate and away from the surrounding water, while the hydrophilic ends point outward when in contact with water. Each micelle contains thousands of lipid molecules. Polar lipids can also form a monolayer, one molecule thick, on the water surface. The polar head faces the water and the non-polar tail sticks to the air. A bilayer is a lipid bilayer arranged with a hydrophobic tail sandwiched between an inner surface and an outer surface with a hydrophilic terminus. The hydrophilic head is in contact with water on both sides of the bilayer, while the tail, which is retained within the bilayer, prevents water from contacting it. Such bilayers form all cell membranes (Figure (PageIndex)).

Figure (PageIndex): Satic diagram of cell membrane. The membrane surrounding a typical animal cell is a phospholipid layer in which cholesterol and protein molecules are embedded. Short oligosaccharide chains are attached to the outer surface.

Within the bilayer, the hydrophobic tails (i.e., the fatty acid segments of the lipid molecules) interact with dispersion forces. This interaction is weakened by the presence of unsaturated fatty acids. As a result, the membrane components are free to erode to some extent and the membrane is represented as a fluid.

Lipids in cell membranes can be classified into several types. Phospholipids are lipids that contain phosphorus. Glycolipids are lipids that contain sugar. The latter are found only on the outer surface of the cell membrane and serve as various surface markers of the cell and aid in cell recognition and intercellular communication. Sphingolipids are phospholipids or glycolipids that contain the unsaturated amino acid sphingosine rather than glycerol. Figure (PageIndex) shows the structural diagram of a representative membrane lipid.

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Phosphoglycerides are composed of alcohol, phosphate, glycerol and two fatty acids. Sphingomyelin contains phosphate, sphingosine and fatty acids. Cerbroside contains sugars, sphingosines and fatty acids.

(also known as glycerophospholipids) are the most abundant phospholipids in cell membranes. These are glycerol units with a fatty acid attached to the first two carbon atoms and phosphate units esterified with an alcohol molecule (usually an amino alcohol, in the figure (PageIndex)) configured. ) attached to the 3rd carbon atom of glycerol (part (b) of Fig. (PageIndex)). Note that phosphoglyceride molecules are similar to triglycerides down to the phosphate unit ((PageIndex)) part of the picture.

Image (PageIndex): Phosphoglycerides. (a) Amino alcohols are common in phosphoglycerides and are evident in structural formula (b).

Lipids Structure And Function Worksheet Answer Key

Here are the structural formulas of ethanolamine and choline. In the structural formula of phosphoglycerides, the glycerol, phosphate and amino alcohol units are highlighted in different colors.

Quiz & Worksheet

Cephalin is found in brain tissue and nerves and is also involved in blood clotting. Phosphoglycerides containing choline as the amino alcohol unit are called phosphoglycerides.

Lecithin is present in all living things. Like cephalin, they are important components of nerve and brain tissue. Egg yolks are particularly rich in lecithin. Commercial grade lecithin isolated from soybeans is widely used in foods as an emulsifier. Emulsifiers are used to stabilize emulsions, i.e. increase the dispersion of two normally immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Most foods are emulsions. Milk is an emulsion in which milk fat dissolves in water. Proteins are known as emulsifiers in milk

The simplest sphingolipid contains sphingomyelin, fatty acids, phosphates, sphingosine and choline (Figure (PageIndex)). Because it contains phosphoric acid, it is also classified as a phospholipid. Sphingomyelin is an important component of the myelin sheath that surrounds the axons of nerve cells. Multiple sclerosis is one of several diseases caused by damage to the myelin sheath.

Figure (PageIndex): Sphingolipids. (a) The amino alcohol sphingosine is found in all sphingolipids. (b) Sphingomyelin, also known as a phospholipid, is identified by the phosphate unit in its structure.

Answers: Lipids, Nucleic Acids And Organic Molecules

Here is the structural formula of sphingosine. General structure of sphingolipids with sphingosine, fatty acid, phosphate and choline units highlighted in different colors.

Most animal cells contain a sphingolipid called cerebroside (Figure (PageIndex)). Cerebrosides are composed of sphingosine, fatty acids and galactose or glucose. So they are similar to sphingomyelin, but have sugar units instead of choline phosphate groups. Cerebrosides are important components of nerve cell and brain membranes.

The general structure of cerebellum, including sugar units, sphingosine units, and fatty acid units, is highlighted in different colors.

Lipids Structure And Function Worksheet Answer Key

Sphingolipids, known as gangliosides, are more complex and usually contain 3 to 8 monosaccharide and/or other sugar chains. Approximately 130 gangliosides have been identified due to their varying sugar content.

Components And Structure

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