Three Identical Strangers Worksheet Pdf

Three Identical Strangers Worksheet Pdf – Bobby Shafran, Eddie Galland and David Kellman, three identical strangers in a new documentary. Photo: Neonfilms

An extraordinary new documentary about identical triplets separated at birth has reignited the debate over DNA’s dominance in controlling our behavior and how we live.

Three Identical Strangers Worksheet Pdf

Three Identical Strangers Worksheet Pdf

Robert Shafran’s first inkling that his life was about to be turned upside down came on his first day of college at New York State in 1980. His fellow students greeted him like a long-lost friend. “Boys would hit me on the back, girls would hug and kiss me,” he recalls. However, until that day, Robert had never set foot in Sullivan County Community College.

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It turned out that the cause of the disturbance was another student, Eddie Galland, who had graduated from college the previous year. Eddie was his character, his colleagues said. Robert was intrigued and went to Eddie’s house to confront him.

“When I reached out to knock on the door, it opened and there I was,” says Robert, recalling his first encounter with Eddie in the upcoming documentary.

The two young men had the same features, the same heavy build, the same dark complexion, the same mop of curly black hair, and the same birthday, 1961. July 12. They were identical twins, which was quickly confirmed by hospital records. They all knew she was adopted, but none of them knew she had a twin sister. Their story made headlines in the US.

One reader, David Kelman, a student at another university, was particularly interested. Also, Robert and Eddie looked remarkably like him. So she contacted Eddie’s foster mother, who was stunned to discover two young men who looked identical to her son within weeks. “Oh my God, I’m coming out of the woodwork,” he complained.

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Eddie, Robert and David were adopted by different families as children. They had the same complementary genes and did not differentiate like the young. They were the same triple person, as one commentator says.

Which appears as a tale of grotesque medical manipulation that today would lead to malpractice prosecution. It is also a touching story of lives coming together. Most importantly, though, the documentary is an up-to-date illustration of the unexpected ways genes and life events interact to shape us.

And it’s very important because once again genetics is in the news. On the one hand, scientists are launching new attacks against the influence of nature on education in human affairs. Meanwhile, the far right tried to hijack the findings of modern genetics to support their extreme views.

Three Identical Strangers Worksheet Pdf

, which won a special award for documentary storytelling at this year’s Sundance Film Festival, couldn’t have been more fitting, said Professor Nathaniel Comfort, a medical historian at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. “The film is particularly timely as genetic essentialism is on the rise and division and polarization is sweeping the world,” he said.

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It is the seemingly intense influence of genetic influences on Eddie, Robert and David. When reunited, they not only resembled doppelgangers, but also shared an unusual number of habits. They all liked the same movies, smoked the same cigarettes (Marlboros), and were wrestlers in college. However, their childhoods were very different. Robert’s parents were wealthy, Eddie grew up in middle-class suburbia, and David’s parents lived in working-class Queens.

Only their close genetic heritage could explain their strong similarities, they argued, an idea the brothers milked to the hilt. They appeared on television and answered the questions unanimously. became famous on the New York club scene; He made a cameo appearance in Madonna’s 1985 film

The triplets with their adoptive brothers. Photo: New York Daily News Archive/NY Daily News via Getty Images

But Eddie, Robert and David’s story slowly changed direction. The boys began to look less and less alike. Their physique has changed with age. Then their restaurant business went bankrupt. They went their separate ways and, without spoiling the plot of this remarkable and powerful film, ended up with very different outcomes in life.

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The triplets’ divergent destinies suggest that other important, non-genetic forces must be involved in determining how their lives turned out. Hence the interest that the film aroused among the heroes of nurturing nature. As a study of identical siblings reared apart, it sheds remarkable light on the interplay of genes and environmental factors in human education.

And while the trio’s story initially suggests that DNA is like an overwhelmingly powerful determinant of human destiny, by the end of the film that assumption feels strained and implausible. Nurche is definitely involved in Robert, Eddie and David’s story.

This implication is supported by the work of Professor Tim Spector, Head of Twin Research at King’s College London. His studies showed many examples of identical twins who grew up together, whose early life experiences were also very similar, but who still turned out to be very different people. Identical sisters, raised by parents who treated them as two versions of the same person and gave them the same clothes and hairstyles, yet ended up with very different personalities and careers. In some cases, one suffered from severe depression while the other was apathetic. However, they shared the exact same genes and the exact same upbringing. Some important environmental influences in later life must necessarily be involved.

Three Identical Strangers Worksheet Pdf

Spector believes these effects are due to epigenetic changes, where major life events—diet, illness, drugs, smoking, and other factors—can cause temporary changes in the behavior of one twin’s genes but not the other’s, with serious health consequences and behavior. . “For example, there doesn’t seem to be agreement on the age of death between identical twins,” Spector said. “In addition, our work shows that there is only a 30% chance that if one identical twin has heart disease, the other will have it, while the chance of developing rheumatoid arthritis is only 15%. But these twins have many different characteristics: the same height, the same hair and the same body shape.”

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Until recently, the study of twins or triplets was the only direct method available to scientists who wanted to separate the effects of our environment and our genes. And apparently the most promising type of this research is the study of identical twins separated at birth and raised by different sets of adoptive parents. These siblings share the same genes but come from different backgrounds, so they should be invaluable in keeping nature’s influences at bay and keeping each other at bay. And many biologists have indeed used such studies to make startling claims about the overwhelming influence of genes on our behavior.

But there are a relatively limited number of identical twins who grew up apart that are known to scientists, and most of them live in the United States or Europe. This means the results will be limited to relatively small datasets and influenced by cultural influences, Comfort pointed out.

Genetics professor Tim Spector with six identical twins. Gemini studies are often based on Western themes. Photo: David Parker/Shutterstock

“If you look at all the twin studies that have been done over the years and ask how many sub-Saharan African twins involved grew up apart, you know the answer. Absolutely none,” he said. “And that’s true for the vast majority of recent DNA sequencing studies. Almost all are done using people of European descent as subjects. It has to have serious consequences to affect the outcome.”

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In addition, Steve Jones, a geneticist at University College London, questioned the conclusions that can be drawn primarily from identical twin studies. “Identical twins lead very different lives from the start, sharing a narrow womb where they are usually born alone. Again, that would skew the results, but genetic determinists ignore that.”

On the other hand, new techniques have recently been developed to study the influence of genes, and this does not require the participation of twins. These are known as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and use thousands, sometimes hundreds of thousands, of subjects to trace lineages and determine whether they have large genetic components. When used correctly, they can provide powerful insights into genetic influences, Comfort acknowledges. “I don’t think you can ignore some of the science they produce, although you have to be careful about interpretation.”

A good example of how these analyzes work is a survey of 4,000 students in England and Wales. It concluded that the type of school – selective, grammar or inclusive – a child attended had little effect on their academic performance in later years, but their genetic make-up played a role. This wasn’t a one or two gene issue…

Three Identical Strangers Worksheet Pdf

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