Unit 8 Blood Lymphatic Cardiovascular Systems Worksheet Answers – Cardiovascular System – Click on the prefixes, form combinations, and suffixes to display a list of word parts to protect the heart.
At 75 beats per minute, the human heart beats about 108,000 times a day, 39 million times a year, and about 3 billion times in a 75-year lifetime. At rest, each of the heart’s main pumping chambers is nearly empty
Unit 8 Blood Lymphatic Cardiovascular Systems Worksheet Answers
About 14,000 liters per minute and per day. In one year, this is equivalent to transporting 1,000,000 liters of blood through about 100,000 kilometers of blood vessels. To understand how this happens, it is necessary to understand the anatomy and physiology of the heart.
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Media 12.1. Heart, Part 1 – Under Pressure: A Crash Course in A&P #25 [online video]. Crash Course Copyright 2015.
The human heart is located in the chest cavity, between the lungs in a space called the mediastinum. Figure 12.1 shows the position of the heart in the chest cavity. Within the mediastinum, the heart is separated from other mediastinal structures by a tough membrane called the pericardium or pericardial sac and placed in its own space called the pericardial cavity. this
The blood vessels that carry blood to and from the heart are attached to the top surface of the heart, called the basal layer. Below the heart is at the level of the third costal cartilage. Lower end of heart, top, left side of sternum between junction of fourth and fifth ribs.
Figure 12.1. Location of the heart in the chest. The heart is located in the chest cavity, in the mediastinum between the lungs. It is about the size of a fist, wide at the top and tapering at the bottom. From Betts et al., 2013. Licensed under CC BY 4.0. [Illustrated. ]
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They are surrounded by a membrane called pericardium or pericardial sac. The pericardium consists of two distinct layers:
Figure 12.2. Pericardium and parietal layer. Surrounding the heart is the pericardium consisting of three layers and the pericardial cavity. The heart wall also consists of three layers. The pericardium and heart wall divide the epicardium from Bates et al., 2013. Licensed under CC BY 4.0. [Illustrated. ]
The interventricular septum is the muscular wall that separates the left and right ventricles. The atrial septum separates the left and right atria.
In order for the heart to perform its job of pumping blood to the lungs and body, nutrients and oxygen must reach the cells of the heart. The heart must coordinate its contractions so that all parts work together to pump blood efficiently. To understand how these all work together to give the heart its ability to pump blood, we will examine three interdependent aspects of heart function.
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The heart pumps blood through two separate but related circulatory systems called the pulmonary and systemic circulation. The pulmonary circulation moves blood to and from the lungs, where it takes in oxygen and expels carbon dioxide. The systemic circulation supplies freshly oxygenated blood to almost all body tissues and returns relatively deoxygenated and carbon dioxide-depleted blood to the heart for the pulmonary circulation.
Heart sounds heard through a stethoscope are the sounds of the four heart valves opening and closing at specific times during the cardiac cycle.
Figure 12.3. Pulmonary circulation Blood leaves the right ventricle and flows into the pulmonary trunk, which divides into two pulmonary arteries. These vessels branch to supply blood to the pulmonary capillaries and gas exchange in the alveoli. Blood returns to the left atrium through the pulmonary veins. From Betts et al., 2013. Licensed under CC BY 4.0. [Illustrated. ]
Blood from the right ventricle flows into the pulmonary trunk, which drains into two pulmonary arteries. These vessels branch to supply blood to the pulmonary capillaries and gas exchange in the alveoli. Blood returns to the left atrium through the pulmonary veins.
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Figure 12.4. Dual Human Circulatory System Blood flows from the right atrium to the right ventricle, where it is pumped into the pulmonary circulation. The blood in the branches of the pulmonary artery is low in oxygen but relatively high in carbon dioxide. Gas exchange occurs in the pulmonary capillaries (oxygen enters the blood, carbon dioxide leaves), and hyperoxic, hypocapnic blood returns to the left atrium. From here the blood enters the left ventricle, which pumps it into the systemic circulation. After a systematic capillary exchange (oxygen and nutrients in the capillaries and carbon dioxide and waste products inside), the blood returns to the right atrium and the cycle repeats. From Betts et al., 2013. Licensed under CC BY 4.0. [Illustrated. ]
The blood pumping and circulation process is active, coordinated and rhythmic. Each heartbeat represents a cycle in which the heart takes in and expels blood.
Cardiomyocytes need a blood supply to pump blood to perform the systolic and diastolic functions of the heart. Their own blood supplies nutrients and oxygen and removes carbon dioxide and waste products. These functions are performed by coronary arteries and coronary veins.
The course of each of these three arteries is traced to determine which parts of the heart muscle are supplied by each artery (and its smaller branches).
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Figure 12.5 Coronary circulation. Anterior view of heart showing prominent vessels on coronal surface. Anterior view of the heart showing prominent blood vessels on the surface of the coronary arteries. From Betts et al., 2013. Licensed under CC BY 4.0. [Illustrated. ]
In order for all parts of the heart to work together and beat efficiently and regularly, the heart has its own electrical system that initiates and conducts each heartbeat throughout the heart muscle. A special population of cardiac cells performs this task on their own without the need for input from the central nervous system.
Media 12.2. The Heart, Part 2 – The Beating Heart: A Crash Course A&P #26 [Online Video]. Crash Course Copyright 2015.
Figure 12.6. Cardiac Conduction System The specialized conduction elements of the heart include the sinoatrial node, internodal pathways, atrioventricular node, atrial bundle, left and right bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers. From Betts et al., 2013. Licensed under CC BY 4.0. [Illustrated. ]
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We can detect and record the electrical activity of the heart’s conduction system using an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). Figure 12.7 shows that electrical impulses originate at the sinoatrial node (phase 2) and travel through the conduction system of the heart to complete a cardiac cycle. Each waveform in an ECG trace carries current and affects a different part of the heart. what did you notice
Figure 12.7. ECG traces are related to the cardiac cycle. The graph correlates the electrical and mechanical events of heart contraction with the ECG traces. Each part of the ECG trace corresponds to an event in the cardiac cycle. From Betts et al., 2013. Licensed under CC BY 4.0. [Illustrated. ]
An elite athlete’s heart can be much larger than an average person’s. Because exercise causes muscle cells to grow which is called
.Athletes’ hearts pump more slowly than non-athletes. However, if the enlarged heart does not result from exercise, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may present. The cause of the abnormal growth of the heart muscle is unknown, but the condition often goes undiagnosed and can lead to sudden death in apparently healthy young adults (Bates et al., 2013).
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Cardiomyopathy can also be caused by myocardial infarction, myocardial infection, pregnancy, alcohol or cocaine abuse, autoimmune and endocrine disorders. Because the heart muscle is responsible for contracting and pumping blood, people with cardiomyopathy lose heart function, which can lead to heart failure. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). For more information about cardiomyopathy, visit the CDC’s cardiomyopathy webpage.
Heart failure is defined as the inability of the heart to pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs. It is also known as congestive heart failure (CHF). This condition causes fluid accumulation in the lungs causing swelling in the lower extremities and difficulty breathing. May be due to cardiomyopathy, which may be
And heart valve disease (Heart and Stroke, n.d.). For more information, visit the Heart and Stroke Congestive Heart Failure web page.
The heart’s four valves open and close at specific times during the cardiac cycle to allow blood to flow through the heart in only one direction. This requires fully opening and closing of these valves. Infections such as rheumatic disease or bacterial endocarditis can affect heart valves and cause scar tissue to form, which can affect valve function. Other causes of valvular heart disease include congenital valve defects, autoimmune disorders, and other cardiovascular disorders such as aortic aneurysms and atherosclerosis (Center for
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